you're a hermit? Also, the group selectionists tend to declare victory, and write as if their theory has already superseded a narrow, reductionist dogma that selection acts only at the level of genes. According to the old song, "We belong to a mutual admiration society, my baby and me"the whimsy hinging on the unnaturalness of referring to a pair of individuals as a "society." The same is true for "group." While mathematically speaking one can identify a "group". When field biologists look at individual lions chasing individual antelopes, or meerkats warning each other of predators, they can make sense of what is going on by treating each individual organism as a fitness-maximising machine: an agent striving to maximise the survival of the replicators. Just as there is intragenomic conflict within individuals, there is also conflict among individuals within social insect colonies. As he points out, much of this renewal has involved little more than semantic confusion 1, 2, which we must get past in order to address any underlying substantive issues. Non-random variation typically just speeds up the process, a little or a lot.
Does this mean that the human brain has been shaped by natural selection to promote the welfare of the group in competition with other groups, even when it damages the welfare of the person and his or her kin? Of course, it may be possible! It certainly might be possible to engineer societies that increase cooperation and equality, but such perfect ideals are not to be found in nature. From within the system, each individual tribe only faces the choice of going agricultural or inevitably dying. Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences.
The primary quality a gene needs, in order to be successful, is the capacity to cooperate with the other genes with which it is statistically likely to share a body. Moloch the heavy judger of men! Plagiarism Free Papers, when you order a paper at EssayTigers, you always receive 100 unique writing from scratch. That's just ordinary causation, enabled by the fruits of human ingenuity, experience, and communication. The puzzle of monogamous marriage. Such a notion is deeply appealing to those who have a dislike for the idea of the "selfish gene mistakenly confusing that notion with the idea of selfish individuals. Notwithstanding Gintis's out-of-context"tion by Dawkins, the Selfish Gene was an explanation of the evolution of altruism, including genuine, in-the-bone beneficence. Related reading Choi.K. Henrich, Richerson, and Boyd Mathews object to my skepticism that cultural change is well explained with an analogy to natural selection. Banning the term (sadly, a utopian fantasy) might force us all to adopt terminology that clearly distinguishes distinct theories, and distinct (hypothetical or actual) phenomena. Forthcoming, MIT Press: Cambridge.
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